Information, Computing and Intelligent systems <p><img src="" alt="" width="210" height="268" align="left" hspace="8" /></p> <p>The <strong>"Information, Computing and Intelligent systems"</strong> journal is the legal successor of the Collection "Bulletin of NTUU "KPI".</p> <p>Informatics, Management and Computer Engineering", which was founded in 1964 at the Faculty of Informatics and Computer Engineering.</p> <p><a href="">ISSN 2708-4930 (Print), </a><a href="">ISSN 2786-8729 (Online)</a></p> <p><strong>The founder</strong> is the National Technical University of Ukraine "Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute"</p> <p><strong>Journal Abbreviation:</strong> Inf. Comput. and Intell. syst. j.</p> Національний технічний університет України "Київський політехнічний інститут імені Ігоря Сікорського" en-US Information, Computing and Intelligent systems 2708-4930 DESIGN OF DATA BUFFERS IN FIELD PROGRAMMABLR GATE ARRAYS <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The need to intensify the extraction process using the influence of chemical reagents on beet chips was substantiated. The analysis of appli-cation of natural sorbents in food production technologies was carried out. The physical and chemical properties of zeolite were explored. The indicators that make it possible to apply natural zeolite for additional treatment of water and juices in sugar production were shown. The effectiveness of the use of natural zeolite for feed water treat-ment with the view to enhancing the technological quality of diffusive juice was determined. Experimental research revealed that feed water treatment with zeolite decreases the content of total iron, ammonium, and permanganate oxidation indicator. It was proved that microbial seeding of feed water and diffusive juice decreases in case of treatment with zeolite. It was established experimentally that the purification of diffu-sion juice occurs during zeolite application for feed water treatment. We determined the effectiveness of removal of macromolecular compounds, including dextran, from diffusive juice obtained during processing sugar beets of various technological quality with natural zeolite. It was shown that at the zeolite consumption of 0.1...0.4 % to the weight of beets, the content of high-molecular compounds and pectic substances in diffusive juice decreases by 30–40 %, and the content of dextran – by 20–40 %, respectively. During the zeolite treatment, an enhancement of the quality of purified juice and improvement of filtration and saturation proper-ties of defeco-saturated precipitate are observed. Thus, the average rate of sedimentation of the precipitate of juice of І carbonation S5 m, when using zeolite for feed water preparation increases by 10–50 % for the beet different technological quality. In the course of research, we designed the technique of zeolite application, which ensures a decrease in coloration, an increase in the purity of the cleared juice, enhancement of filtration and sedimentation properties of the precipitate of juice of I carbon-ation. High effectiveness of the proposed method is pronounced in processing raw materials of lowered quality. Thus, there are some grounds to claim the effectiveness of zeolite application to enhance the quality of diffusion juice and products in sugar production.</span></p> Anatoliy Sergiyenko Pavlo Serhiienko Ivan Mozghovyi Anastasiia Molchanova Copyright (c) 2022 Information, Computing and Intelligent systems 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 3 10.20535/2708-4930.3.2022.267302 ORGANIZATION OF FAST EXPONENTIATION ON GALOIS FIELDS FOR CRYPTOGRAPHIC DATA PROTECTION SYSTEMS <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The object of the research described in the article is the process of calculating the exponent on finite Galois fields when implementing cryptographic mechanisms for protecting information with a public key.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The purpose of these studies is to speed up the exponentiation operation on Galois fields, which is basic for the implementation of a wide range of cryptographic data protection protocols through the use of precomputations that depend only on the forming Galois polynomial field.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">To achieve the goal, the feature of performing exponentiation on Galois fields in public key cryptography is used - the constancy of the forming Galois field polynomial, which is part of the public key. This allows you to select calculations that depend only on the generating polynomial and perform them only once, saving the results in the precalculation tables. The use of precomputations allows not only to reduce the computational complexity of the exponentiation operation on Galois fields, but also to effectively use it to speed up the combination of the processing of several bits.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The article proposes the organization of accelerated execution of the basic operation of a wide range of cryptographic algorithms with a public key - exponentiation on finite Galois fields GF(2</span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">n</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">). Acceleration of the computational implementation of this operation is achieved by organizing the processing of several bits of the code at once during squaring on Galois fields. This organization is based on the use of polynomial squared properties, Montgomery group reduction, and extensive use of previous calculations. Procedures for performing basic operations of exponentiation on Galois fields are developed in detail, the work of which is illustrated by numerical examples. It has been proved that the proposed organization can increase the computational speed of this operation by 2.4 times, which is significant for cryptographic applications.</span></p> Al-Mrayt Ghassan Abdel Jalil Halil Oleksandr Markovskiy Alona Stupak Copyright (c) 2022 Information, Computing and Intelligent systems 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 3 10.20535/2708-4930.3.2022.265480 ORGANIZATION OF PARALLEL EXECUTION OF MODULAR MULTIPLICATION TO SPEED UP THE COMPUTATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION OF PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The object of research to which the article is devoted are the processes of calculating multiplicative operations of modular arithmetic, which are performed on numbers, the length of which is orders of magnitude greater than the bit capacity of processors.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The target of the research is to speed up the execution of the modular multiplication operation on numbers, which is important for cryptographic tasks, the bit count of which significantly exceeds the bit count of the processor, due to the organization of parallel calculation of fragments of the modular product on multi-core computers. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">As the main way to achieve the goal, in the research presented in the article, parallelization at the level of processing bits of the multiplier and the application of Montgomery group reduction using recalculations that depend only on the module, which for cryptographic applications is part of the public key, which allows it to be considered constant, were used.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The article theoretically substantiates, develops and investigates the method of parallel execution of the basic operation of cryptography with a public key - modular multiplication of large numbers. It is based on a special organization of dividing the components of modular multiplication by independent computational processes in order to ensure the possibility of effective group reduction of the product. The proposed organization ensures high independence of partial computing processes, which simplifies the organization of interaction between them. To implement the Montgomery group reduction, the results of recalculations are used, which depend only on the module and, accordingly, are performed only once. The presentation is illustrated by numerical examples. It is theoretically and experimentally proven that the proposed approach to the parallelization of the computational process of modular multiplication using Montgomery group reduction when using s processor cores allows to speed up this important for cryptographic applications operation by 0.57</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">⋅</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">s.</span></p> Igor Boyarshin Oleksandr Markovskyi Bogdana Ostrovska Copyright (c) 2022 Information, Computing and Intelligent systems 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 3 10.20535/2708-4930.3.2022.265418 SIMULATION OF FLUID MOTION IN COMPLEX CLOSED SURFACES USING A LATTICE BOLTZMANN MODEL <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Restorative operations on the human digestive tract can cause negative consequences. These </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">effects</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> were manifested in the appearance of undesirable deformations, so-called "blind bags", which arose as a result of the formation of high pressure zones after the geometry of the digestive tract cavity was changed during reconstructive surgery. For this reason, the development of a mathematical model of the movement of liquids in closed surfaces has become necessary in recent years.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">There are many </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">approaches</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> to solving such problems. Most of the traditional approaches require considerable time and computing resources for their implementation. Thus, when using analytical methods, there are possible solutions only under certain conditions. Therefore, there is a need to use effective numerical methods, one of which is the lattice Boltzmann model. The purpose of this work is to study hydrodynamic processes in closed surfaces using the lattice Boltzmann model.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">There is a significant </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">number</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> of publications devoted to modeling the movement of liquids in closed surfaces. But the analysis of the publications showed that the use of the Boltzmann lattice model in such problems has not been studied in detail.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Formulated statement of the problem in the form of a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation. It is proposed to solve such a problem by using the Boltzmann lattice model.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The results of </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">theoretical</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> studies and experiments showed the practical feasibility of using the proposed approach to modeling the movement of liquids in closed surfaces. It is noted that the proposed approach has prospects for further research and development.</span></p> Valentyn Kuzmych Mykhailo Novotarskyi Copyright (c) 2022 Information, Computing and Intelligent systems 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 3 10.20535/2708-4930.3.2022.267665 ZERO-KNOWLEDGE IDENTIFICATION OF REMOTE USERS BY UTILIZATION OF PSEUDORANDOM SEQUENCES <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The object of the research described in the article is the process of cryptographically strict identification of participants in remote information interaction, which provides the possibility of protection against session interception by outsiders.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The purpose of the work is to increase the effectiveness of cryptographically strict identification of participants in remote information interaction due to the acceleration of the identity confirmation process, as well as by organizing secondary cycles of contact control to counteract interaction interception.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The goal is achieved through the additional use of secondary identification cycles, which are carried out periodically during the interaction session and allow detecting the fact that the interaction was intercepted by the attacker. A single cryptographic mechanism – generators of pseudo-random binary sequences – is used to implement primary and secondary identification. In addition to implementing cryptographically strict identification, this mechanism can be used for fast stream encryption of data exchanged by participants of interaction.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In the article, the identification scheme based on the concept of "zero knowledge" with the use of irreversible generators of pseudo-random bit sequences is theoretically justified, developed and researched in detail. Session passwords form a chain formed by random sequence values. Secondary identification sessions are provided in the proposed scheme to counteract attacks with the imprinting of one of the remote interaction parties. The main elements of the proposed identification scheme are developed in detail: authorization procedures, primary and secondary identification.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">It is theoretically proven that the task of breaking the proposed method of cryptographically strict identification is identical to the prediction of the binary sequence formed by the generator. For standardized cryptographic generators of pseudorandom sequences, the solution of this problem is beyond the technical capabilities for most practical applications. It is theoretically and experimentally proven that the proposed cryptographically strict identification scheme provides 2-3 orders of magnitude faster performance compared to known schemes that use irreversible number theory transformations and is an order of magnitude faster than identification schemes based on a chain of hash transformations.</span></p> Ihor Daiko Viktor Selivanov Miroslava Chernyshevych Oleksandr Markovskyi Copyright (c) 2022 Information, Computing and Intelligent systems 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 3 10.20535/2708-4930.3.2022.269112 ORGANIZATION OF PROTECTED FILTERING OF IMAGES IN CLOUDS <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The object of research</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">is the processes of homomorphic encryption of images for their protected arithmetic mean filtering in clouds.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The purpose of the work is to increase the efficiency of secure image processing in the clouds, in particular, their arithmetic mean filtering on remote computer systems by increasing the level of security.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The article proposes an approach to using cloud technologies to accelerate the filtering of image streams while ensuring their protection during processing on remote computer systems. Homomorphic encryption of images during their remote filtering is proposed to be carried out by shuffling rows of pixel matrices.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This approach is specified in the form of a method of homomorphic encryption of images to protect against their illegal reconstruction during arithmetic mean filtering on remote computer systems, which is distinguished by the fact that the main element of protection is the shuffling of image pixel matrix rows. The shuffling order can change randomly and serves as a secret key for homomorphic encryption of images. Within the framework of the developed method, procedures for partial arithmetic mean filtering, which is carried out on remote systems, as well as procedures for the final stage of filtering, which is carried out on a terminal platform that performs processing and analysis of a real image, are defined. The developed method of protected filtering based on shuffling the rows of the pixel matrix allows, due to the use of remote computing power, to speed up this operation by 1-2 orders of magnitude, which practically coincides with the similar indicator of the fastest-acting variant of image protection based on additive masking.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The main advantage of the developed method is a much higher level of protection against attempts, using statistical analysis, to gain illegal access to images during their processing on remote computer systems not controlled by the user.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The proposed method can be used to speed up the processing and analysis of images by terminal devices of computer systems for remote monitoring of the state of real-world objects and their management.</span></p> Alireza Mirataei Olga Rusanova Karolina Tribynska Oleksandr Markovskyi Copyright (c) 2022 Information, Computing and Intelligent systems 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 3 10.20535/2708-4930.3.2022.269132 FAST SECURE CALCULATION OF THE OPEN KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY PROCEDURES FOR IOT IN CLOUDS <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The object of the research described in the article is the process of protected implementation on remote computer systems of the basic operation of public key cryptography - modular exponentiation. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The aim of the study is to increase the speed of implementation of public key cryptographic data protection mechanisms on terminal microcontrollers of computer control systems in real time by organizing the secure execution of the basic operation of these mechanisms - modular exponentiation on remote computer systems.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">To attain these aim the multiplicative-additive decomposition of the exponent code was used, which allowed to divide the calculation into two parts, the larger of which is performed on remote computer systems using cloud technologies, and the smaller one on the terminal microcontroller. At the same time, it is almost impossible to recover the secret components of the operation based on the data transmitted to the cloud on remote computer systems.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">As a result of the conducted research, a method for accelerating the implementation of cryptographic data protection mechanisms on built-in IoT terminal microcontrollers, the basic operation of which is modular exponentiation of large-bit numbers, was theoretically justified and developed. The method is based on the use of remote computer systems to speed up calculations and provides protection against the reconstruction of secret keys of cryptosystems based on data transmitted to the cloud. The main difference of the proposed method is the use of a single mechanism for protecting the secret components of the operation in the form of a multiplicative decomposition of the exponent code.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Theoretically and experimentally, it has been proven that the method allows to speed up the execution of cryptographic data protection protocols in IoT by an average of 50 times while providing a level of security sufficient for most practical applications.</span></p> Alireza Mirataei Oleksandr Маrkovskyi Maria Haidukevych Copyright (c) 2022 Information, Computing and Intelligent systems 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 3 10.20535/2708-4930.3.2022.265479 METHODS OF EFFECTIVIZATION OF SCALABLE SYSTEMS: REWIEW <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The article discusses the problem of inefficiency of modern systems and horizontal scaling as a method of increasing productivity. The main issues that make up the mentioned problem are highlighted: parallelism constraints, mismatch between the task and the system, the complexities of programming and the question of the balance between cost and performance. A classification for possible solutions was proposed, according to which they were divided into architectural and network, and an overview was carried out. As part of the architectural class, such approaches as quantum computing and the dataflow paradigm were reviewed, the most promising solutions were analyzed. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The comparative analysis shows that by their nature dataflow and quantum computing do not contradict each other, moreover, they complement each other in the context of the problem. Thus, specialized D-Wave quantum computers, in contrast to universal quantum processors, provide large computing power at a relatively modest price, while the dataflow solution, represented mainly by Maxeler processors, is universal and efficient, but inferior to quantum systems in a number of tasks.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">At the same time, both types of processors require a certain network for communication, which makes the issue of topology relevant. At the network level, 2 topologies - Fat Tree and Dragonfly - were considered, and their main properties were highlighted. The analysis showed that in the context of the problem Dragonfly is slightly better due to decentralization and smaller diameter, however, both solutions provide good topological characteristics and support for the main modern routing technologies. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In the conclusions, the main aspects of problem formulation and review are indicated, further prospects and possible methods are considered. First of all, a promising idea is the combination of quantum and non-quantum solutions in one system. This approach allows you to significantly speed up certain calculations, while ensuring the universality of the system. However, a more general issue is the mutual integration of solutions as such. The problem of efficiency has many partial solutions, but not all of them are compatible, therefore, the development of complex methods on the basis of already known ones is a key perspective of the subject area.</span></p> Oleksandr Honcharenko Heorhii Loutskii Copyright (c) 2022 Information, Computing and Intelligent systems 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 3 10.20535/2708-4930.3.2022.265229 MODERN INFORMATION SYSTEMS SECURITY MEANS <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">High rates of technical progress and the spread of information technologies are a fairly widespread phenomenon today. However, statistical data indicate that, simultaneously with the positive dynamics, there is also an annual exponential growth in the amount of malicious software that affects information systems. Thus, in the second quarter of 2022, security systems detected 55.3 million malicious and potentially unwanted objects, which became a serious threat to information security, taking various forms, including attacks on software, theft of intellectual property, theft of personal data, theft of information, sabotage and extortion of information. That is why technologies for analysis and detection of potential dangers are constantly being improved. However, currently no method is capable of detecting the entire existing spectrum of malicious software, which proves the complexity and necessity of creating effective approaches to detecting malicious software and the presence of an unlimited space of possibilities for the development of new methods in this field.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This article reviews the actual state of information security, classifies and highlights specific attributes of security mechanisms, analyzes various criteria for classifying information system security risks.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In the first chapter, categories and features of types of threats to information security are considered. The second chapter provides a general description of threat analysis methods, compares static, dynamic, and hybrid malware analysis methods and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In the third chapter, the newest means of detecting and countering threats to information systems are considered, and the peculiarities of their implementation are analyzed.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The article provides a thorough review of current research on malware detection methodology</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The purpose of this article is to provide a general idea of the current state of information security and existing modern methods of protecting information systems from possible threats.</span></p> Iryna Klymenko Анна Ігорівна Вернер Copyright (c) 2022 Information, Computing and Intelligent systems 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 3 10.20535/2708-4930.3.2022.266391 OVERVIEW OF OCR TOOLS FOR THE TASK OF RECOGNIZING TABLES AND GRAPHS IN DOCUMENTS <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This study provides an overview of OCR tools for recognizing document tables and graphs. Digitizing paper documents has many advantages for both individuals and businesses. One must use OCR (optical character recognition) software to digitize. Such software scans documents to make the text readable by a computer. One can convert them to formats supported by Microsoft Word or Google Docs. OCR software is becoming more of a necessity than a utility for entertainment. OCR creates searchable, editable text from printed documents, as well as from scanned photos or books and PDF files.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Currently, there is an active trend toward the digitalization of documents. There is a great demand for solutions that can effectively automate the processing of an extensive array of documents with high accuracy. A particular case is the processing of PDF files, such as scanned documents or generated by software editors. OCR solutions aim to increase the efficiency of processing and analysis of digital documents using artificial intelligence. Both government agencies and businesses can use these solutions. The developed systems can be a valuable addition to CRM systems and can be integrated instead of existing document processing modules or used as a separate solution.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Although existing OCR solutions can efficiently recognize text, recognizing graphical elements, such as charts and tables, is still in the making. Solutions that can increase the accuracy of visual data recognition can be valuable for technical document processing, such as scientific, financial, and other analytical documents.</span></p> Олександр Ярошенко Copyright (c) 2022 Information, Computing and Intelligent systems 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 3 10.20535/2708-4930.3.2022.265200